Posts tagged disability
Systematic School-based Disability Screening: A Comparative Analysis of Formal Approaches Across Select Country Contexts ​

There has been a noted increase in attention to inclusive education from national Ministries of Education as well as from bilateral and multilateral aid communities. However, despite the prevalence of many thoughtful national education policies that call for the inclusion of children with disabilities in formal education settings, many countries lack formal school-based approaches that effectively identify students who would benefit from targeted supports to maximize their opportunities to participate and learn. To investigate how education systems are identifying students with special learning needs the Education Equity Research Initiative’s Disability Task team established a dedicated working group to undertake a case-study approach to examine formal screening and identification processes across a set of select countries.

Costing inclusive education of children with disabilities: ​ ​ Analysis of expenditures of an inclusive education programme in Senegal​

The study sought to identify the incremental expenditure of including children with disabilities in mainstream public primary schools in Senegal, West Africa, collecting from schools in suburban districts of Senegal capital, Dakar, where a total of 187 children with disabilities - primarily blind or had severe low vision, were enrolled in general education primary schools. The expenditure analysis was conducted retrospectively using accounting systems of the partners involved in the pilot. The analysis was incremental, so that only expenditures that were directly related to the Inclusive education intervention were included.

Identifying children with special learning needs Results from a validation study in Ethiopia

Drawing on promising elements of established and experimental screening tools, our toolkit tested a range of abilities including vision, hearing, motor skills, language and numeracy skills, and important cognitive skills: memory, processing speed, and selective attention. Unlike many existing screening tools that rely on parent or self-reports, this toolkit emphasizes direct assessment of disabilities in the screening process.

Measuring the effect of an early childhood caregiver training on child development

Along with partners, Sightsavers has been testing a training intervention for caregivers at early childhood centres in rural Malawi. The study sought to understand the effect the training package would have on child development measures, caregiver retention and disability-inclusiveness of the centres as a whole. For the purposes of the study, child development was measured using the Malawi Developmental Assessment Tool; caregiver retention was measured through interview with caregivers operational at the time of visit; and disability inclusiveness was measured through composite factors including the number of children with disability enrolled (per the Washington Group/ UNICEF child functioning module) and an adapted version of the ECERS scale.

Using the Washington Group/ UNICEF Child Functioning Module in an early childhood setting in rural Malawi

Standardised and internationally validated tools and metrics are vital to measure disability among children and monitor their participation in services and interventions.The recently launched UNICEF/ Washington Group Child Functioning Module (CFM) builds on, and improves the UNICEF 10 Question Screen for disability, and assesses functional difficulties of children aged 2-17 years in in different domains including hearing, vision, communication/ comprehension, learning, mobility and emotions. Sightsavers, and partners, recently conducted a cross-sectional survey among children aged 2-6 years attending early childhood centers in rural Malawi as part of baseline data collection for a cluster randomized control trial.

Innovations in inclusive education policy to practice: How to make inclusive education a reality in low- and middle-income contexts

“Leaving no one behind when learning starts” is a project aimed at increasing disability-inclusive investment in Early Childhood Development (ECD). More specifically, this project 1) supports strategic advocacy efforts towards increasing disability-inclusive investment in ECD, 2) increases awareness amongst parents, professionals and other relevant networks about the importance of ECD, and 3) enhances the capacities of community based rehabilitation workers to deliver improved early intervention services through better, more informed investment and funding strategies. 

Policy Brief: Disability Screening Instruments from Low- and Middle-Income Countries

This brief summarizes findings from our review of low-cost screening instruments that are currently being used or have the potential to be used in low- and middle-income countries to identify children with disabilities, which covers screening instruments that could be applied at the individual level for identification or at the population level to measure prevalence.

Published: May 2019

Author(s): Rachel Hatch, FHI 360, Eileen Dombrowski, RTI International, Disability Task Team

Related Content:

·         Disability Screening Instruments Mapping

Disability Screening Instruments Mapping

This instrument mapping documents low-cost screening tools that are currently being used or have the potential to be used in low- and middle-income countries to identify children with disabilities. The mapping covers instruments that apply at the population or individual level and that could be used with children of early childhood and/or primary school ages.  It includes only low or no cost instruments, although a few of the instruments covered would become cost-effective only if implemented at scale. Additionally, we sought instruments that could be administered by an enumerator or teacher rather than by only specialists.

Published: May 2019

Author(s): Rachel Hatch, FHI 360 and Eileen Dombrowski, RTI International

Related Content

  • Disability Screening Instruments from Low- and Middle-Income Countries

Education and disability: Analysis of data from 49 countries (CIES 2018 presentation)

This presentation was presented as part of the panel, The Equity Initiative: Gathering and Utilizing Data on Children with Disabilities in Education, at CIES 2018.

This session presents recently published results of an analysis of survey and census data on education from 49 countries. Data sources include Demographic and Health Surveys supported by the US Agency for International Development, School-to-Work Transition Surveys carried out by the International Labour Organization, and population census data compiled by IPUMS-International. The data reveal persistent disparities between persons with and without disabilities with regard to school attendance, completion of education, and literacy.

Experience Conducting EGRAs with Children with Disabilities (CIES 2018 presentation)

This presentation was presented as part of the panel, The Equity Initiative: Gathering and Utilizing Data on Children with Disabilities in Education, at CIES 2018.

This presentation shares lessons learned around methods for adapting, piloting and administering EGRA to students with disabilities, including both success and ongoing challenges. It highlights the undocumented regional sign language variations in one country as a key challenge in adapting reading assessment for sign language users there. Finally, the presentation discusses the impacts that these assessments’ results have had on government stakeholders’ priorities and decisions around materials provision and teacher training designed specifically for students with disabilities.

Identifying children with disabilities: Approaches to functionality screenings in schools (CIES 2018 presentation)

This presentation was presented as part of the panel, The Equity Initiative: Gathering and Utilizing Data on Children with Disabilities in Education, at CIES 2018.

The presentation offers insights into effective practices for incorporating screening approaches into low-resource environments. With education practitioners in mind, the presentation gives special consideration to the cost-effectiveness of different approaches and implications for incorporating them into programs in low-resource environments. In conclusion, the presentation points to gaps in what current approaches address.

Published: March 2018

Author: Rachel Hatch, FHI 360

Related Content

Disability Screenings: Examining discrepancies in global prevalence rates from a critical perspective (CIES 2018 presentation)

This presentation was presented as part of the panel, The Equity Initiative: Innovations and Challenges in Using Functionality Screenings with Children, at CIES 2018.

This presentation will discuss work to address the question “What is causing high incidences of behavioral challenges observed on functionality screenings like the WG tool?” Drawing on critical social constructivist theories of disability, this paper surveys several case studies in the international literature on challenging behaviors related to emotional and behavioral disabilities (EBD) as well as other disabilities that are often associated with challenging behaviors associated with the identification of disabilities in a global context. 

Measuring Disability Prevalence in Rwanda using the Washington Group Short Set of Questions (CIES 2018 presentation)

This presentation was presented as part of the panel, The Equity Initiative: Innovations and Challenges in Using Functionality Screenings with Children, at CIES 2018.

This paper will present the side-by-side Short Set data from caregivers and their children and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the utilized methodology. We will also demonstrate how children’s literacy practices differed based on their functional limitations, as identified by the Short Set. Finally, we will present ways that Save the Children and other organizations can move forward with collecting critical data on children’s disabilities using these questions.

Generating data on disability prevalence through school-based surveys: Lessons learned (CIES 2018 presentation)

This presentation was presented as part of the panel, The Equity Initiative: Innovations and Challenges in Using Functionality Screenings with Children, at CIES 2018.

This paper presents the initial results from the rollout of the Washington Group Short Set of Questions with children and adolescents through the school-based surveys. The Short Set is intended for use by adults, and is generally not geared towards gathering data with children. This exercise by FHI 360 aimed to empirically test the appropriateness of the tool with children in different country contexts and age groups.