Posts in Education Finance
Equity and quality in Latin America: A deeper look (CIES 2018 presentation)
The global learning crisis: 600 million children are not learning (CIES 2018 presentation)

This presentation was presented as part of the panel, The Equity Initiative: Data and Evidence to Address the Learning Crisis, at CIES 2018.

In this session, the UIS presents new estimates of the number of children and adolescents who will be unable to read or do math proficiently if current trends continue. More than 617 million children and adolescents of primary and lower secondary age – mainly from sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia – are expected to lack minimum proficiency in reading and mathematics, due to a combination of lack of access to education, early drop-out, and not learning enough in school. The estimates were generated with a newly developed methodology that makes use of a new UIS database that anchors the results of learning assessments carried out in more than 160 countries and territories between 1995 and 2015, in order to make them internationally comparable.

World Development Report 2018: Learning to realize education’s promise (CIES 2018 presentation)

This presentation was presented as part of the panel, The Equity Initiative: Data and Evidence to Address the Learning Crisis, at CIES 2018.

Schooling that doesn’t result in learning is not just a missed opportunity—it is a great injustice. The children whom society is failing most are the ones in greatest need of a good education to succeed in life. But there’s nothing inevitable about low levels of learning—real progress is possible, at any level of development, when countries prioritize learning and mobilize everyone with a stake in education to work toward it. The World Development Report identifies three main dimensions of the learning crisis and provides detailed diagnoses of each dimension based on new data and research. This presentation provides three steps that nations must take to confront the learning crisis.

The Conundrum of Learning Norms: Towards a Learning Gini Index (CIES 2018 presentation)

This presentation was presented as part of the panel, The Equity Initiative: Data and Evidence to Address the Learning Crisis, at CIES 2018.

This paper presents support for a new Learning Equity Gini Index (LEGI) that will assist international educational development researchers and practitioners in three key ways. First, a LEGI would enable a better understanding of learning gaps over time between various segments of a country’s population. Second, such an Index would provide a way to compare Indices across different metrics of learning, since only learners within a specified population would be measured on the same scale. Third, the LEGI would build on previous income and education indices in a coherent way. 

Mainstreaming Equity in Education

This paper, commissioned by the International Education Funders Group (IEFG) as a framing document, is intended to help establish some of the key issues and challenges that need to be addressed around equity in education, and provide a way forward to mainstreaming equity-oriented programming and data analysis.

Moving Up a Gear: The CapED Initiative

A joint effort of UNESCO’s education sector unit and the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS), the SDG 4 pilot initiative is an initiative aimed to help bridge the gap between national education policies and data collection and use.

Published: August, 2017

Authors: Silvia Montoya, UNESCO Institute for Statistics and Jordan Naidoo, UNESCO

Posted in: Data for Sustainable Development- UNESCO Institute for Statistics Blog

Effective Joint Sector Reviews as (Mutual) Accountability Platforms: Key Takeaways for Policymakers and Practitioners

A summary of Global Partnership for Education's study into education JSRs, highlighting key takeaways for education sector policymakers and practitioners in the aid environment. The full paper is available at:

Year Published: 2017

AuthorGlobal Partnership for Education

Financing Learning for Every Last Child

World leaders have promised have promised to ensure every girl and boy will learn from a quality education. This is a bold and important promise. Without it, we will not even come close to eradicating poverty or reaching the Sustainable Development Goals.

Without a step change in financing education now, we will fail the next generation of children. Yet the world has not given education the priority it needs. If current trends of education financing continue, we will be 50 years late in ensuring inclusive quality education for all.

This briefing sets out what action Save the Children believes is needed to close the education financing gap and ensure that every last child is learning. Our ‘Call to Action’ sets out our recommendations on domestic financing, bilateral aid, and funding for multilateral mechanisms - such as the Global Partnership for Education, the Education Cannot Wait fund for education in emergencies, and establishing the newly proposed International Financing Facility for Education.

Publication Year: 2017

Author (s): Save the Children. UK

IFC investments in basic education: marginalising the poorest
Non-formal primary school in Mathare, Nairobi, Kenya. Credit: TonyBaker

Non-formal primary school in Mathare, Nairobi, Kenya. Credit: TonyBaker

Despite the World Bank’s commitment to promote free primary education, the International Finance Corporation (IFC, the World Bank’s private sector arm) approved $162 million in investments for the expansion of fee-charging, for-profit primary and secondary schools worldwide from 2011 to 2015.

Published: April 2017

Author: Milagros Lechleiter, RESULTS Educational Fund

Posted in: The Bretton Woods Project

From Free to Fee - Are For-Profit, Fee-Charging, Private Schools the solution for the world’s poor?

This report from RESULTS Education Fund investigates World Bank’s basic education investments through its private lending arm (the IFC). The report seeks to explore if IFC investments in education reach the poorest groups and help reduce extreme poverty. From Free to Fee provides evidence from IFC funded schools in Kenya, Uganda, and South Africa, and presents recommendations for the World Bank, the IFC, and other investors on how to more effectively end poverty through basic education.

Publication Year: 2017

Author(s): William C. Smith and Tony Baker, RESULTS Educational Fund

Rules vs Responsiveness: Towards Building an Outcome-Focused Approach to Governing Elementary Education Finances in India

This paper builds on the findings from in-depth PAISA district studies to present both the key findings as well as a comprehensive set of recommendations based on the PAISA studies.

Publication year: 2014

Author(s): Yamini Aiyar, Ambrish Dongre, Avani Kapur, Anit N Mukherjee, T.R. Raghunandan, Accountability Initiative, Centre for Policy Research

Raising Domestic Resources for Equitable Education

This paper explores the allocation of domestic resources for education and how how these resources are distributed within the education sector. The findings show that addressing inequality in education requires attention not only to the
mobilization of additional domestic resources, but also to how domestic resources are mobilized as well as how they are spent.

Publication Year: 2016

Author (s): Asma Zubairi and Pauline Rose, REAL Centre, University of Cambridge

Targeting Education Financing on the Marginalized: Lessons from Implementation of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan and Right to Education in India

This paper, commissioned for the EFA Global Monitoring Report, Teaching and learning: Achieving quality for all, intends to explore the mechanisms of financing of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan in detail and delineate the lessons learnt from implementation over the last decade. Specifically, the paper will address four sets of issues:

  1. Resource mobilization strategy and financing of SSA;
  2. Resource allocation and fund flows between Union and States;
  3. Planning and budgeting formulas for distribution of resources among districts; and
  4. Outcomes in terms of access and equi ty in resource needs at the State and district levels

Year Published: 2013

Author(s): Anit Mukherjee, Center for Global Development

Financing Education Equity: A Study of Three Country Cases

This study unpacks the nature of the household spending on education and investigate whether the expected cost of participation substantially deepens the equity gap between the poor and the relatively wealthier households in school enrollment decisions. This paper was prepared for the International Commission on Financing Global Education Opportunity as a background paper for the report, The Learning Generation: Investing in education for a changing world

Year Published: 2017