We define equity as a reassessment and redistribution of resources (human, institutional, and financial) in education with the goal of reducing or eliminating systematic inequality in outcomes. In this sense, equity is a path to achieving equality. In the simplest terms, equity is fairness, or equal opportunity to achieve the same outcomes regardless of starting conditions and barriers. This panel examines the extent to which this reassessment and redistribution of resources towards learners who have greater needs – due to their socioeconomic origin, disability status, poverty or place of residence - is taking place, on a national, regional, and global level. We will present a framework for understanding the relative magnitude of inequity, and apply it to data from education systems across the income spectrum, from OECD to Sub-Saharan Africa.